HISTORY OF ISLAMIC KINGDOMS IN INDONESIA

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    nana nana
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    1. The entry of Islam in Indonesia

    Residents Learning and students – have you ever heard the story of when the Islamic religion into the archipelago and why Islam is growing rapidly and easily accepted by the people of Indonesia? You need to know that Islam enters and develops in Indonesia peacefully and non-violently or forcefully.

    The entry of Islam in Indonesia is closely related to the activities of shipping and trading in the past. you Remember that the activities of shipping and trade in the waters of the archipelago has been going on since early AD. At that time many traders from India and China held trade relations with Indonesian merchants. This shipping and trading activities are getting more and more crowded. Furthermore, around the 7th century and 8 Islamic traders from the Middle East many who came sailing to the Strait of Malacca to the waters of our archipelago. At that time in Indonesia has stood a famous empire named Sriwijaya. because Sriwijaya when it is the largest city, where the shelter and loading and unloading of merchandise brought by traders from the archipelago of the archipelago and from outside, it is likely to include traders from the Middle East who stopped at Srivijaya. Therefore, Islamic traders who have known Sriwijaya mention Sriwijaya in terms of Zabag or Zabay.

    The growing trade relations between Muslim traders and Indonesian merchants brought the influence of the entry of Islam to Indonesia.

    In general, Islamic traders while they trade introduce or teach the Islamic religion to traders and local residents. It is through this trading relationship that the Indonesian population recognize the teachings of Islam to further consciously embrace Islam.

    Around the 11th century Islam has also arrived in Java. This information was obtained on the basis of evidence of a gravestone (tomb) written with Arabic letters. The tombstone that dates to 1082 is found on the Slopes (near Gresik). The inscription on this tombstone contains information about the death of a woman named Fatimah bint Maimun.

    Another information about the development of Islam in Indonesia is sourced from a travel record of a man named Marco Polo (1992). He is a traveler from Venice, Italy. On the way to China (China traveled by sea, Marco Polo stopped in North Aceh from which he said that in Perlak many Muslims are Muslim and many traders from Gujarat (India) are actively promoting the religion of Islam.

    Based on the above information, it is clear that in addition to traders from Gujarat (India) who actively broadcast Islam in the archipelago of the archipelago. Keep in mind that the Gujarat merchants since the 10th century have embraced Islam.

    The early Islamic religions flourished in the trading towns or around the hometowns of Islamic merchants. The area that first became an Islamic area was Perlak and Samudra Pasai. It then extends to Java like Gresik. Tuban, Demak, Cirebon and Banten. It should be to other islands (Maluku, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and so on).

    2. Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia

    The rapid and widespread development of Islam in Indonesia, especially in coastal areas due to trade contacts between Islamic traders and Indonesian merchants. The Islamic traders from Gujarat broadcast the religion of Islam wisely and without coercion or violence. So many traders and residents of Indonesia in the past mass who are attracted to Islam. In addition, Islamic teachings do not recognize caste.

    The strong influence of Islam among the population encouraged the growth of Islamic empires in the archipelago of the archipelago. The famous Islamic empires of Indonesia in the past can be explained below.

    a. The Islamic kingdom of Samudra Pasai

    In the thirteenth century stood the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia namely Samudra Pasai. The founder of this kingdom also became the first king named Sultan Malik al Saleh. The location of the kingdom is in the area of ??North Aceh in Lokseumawe District.

    Then in 1297 Sultan Malik al Saleh died to continue the reign he was succeeded by his son named Sultan Mahmud. In 1326 Sultan Mahmud also died. Furthermore, the rule of the Islamic kingdom of Samudra pasai led by Sultan Ahmad who holds the title of Sultan Malik Al Tahir. During the reign of Sultan Ahmad, the kingdom of Samudra Pasai received a visit of Ibn Batuta, the envoy of the Sultan of Delhi. Ibn Batuta tells that Samudra Pasai is the most important port of port. Because the port is a place of loading and unloading goods merchandise brought by the merchants from within and outside the country (India and China).

    b. The Kingdom of Islam Demak

    In the fifteenth century on the island of Java stands the Islamic kingdom of Demak. Demak is the first Islamic empire in Java. The founder of this kingdom was named Raden Patah. He is actually one of the regents in the Majapahit kingdom based in Demak and has embraced Islam. Majapahit power when it was weak. This situation prompted Raden Patah to establish the Islamic empire of Demak. With the establishment of Demak Islamic kingdom means Raden Patah has escaped from the influence of Majapahit power. The establishment of the Sultanate of Demak has also received support from other areas in East Java that are already Islamic like Jepara. Tuban and Gresik.

    In a short time Demak has developed into a great empire. In addition, Demak became the center of Islamic religious broadcasting. Especially after Malaka falls (controlled) by the Portuguese (1511), then the position and role of Demak increasingly important.

    The arrival of the Portuguese invaders in Malacca invited the displeasure of Sultan Demak. Because it is also a threat to the kingdom of Demak. In 1513 the kingdom of Demak sent a fleet of soldiers led by Pati Unus to drive the Portuguese in Malacca to failure. This is because Potugis has a fleet of more kuta and complete.

    Although efforts to seize Malacca from Potugis by Pati Unus have failed, but this event should be proud because they are brave to face the colonial nation.

    Because of his courage as a commander who led the attack to Malacca So Pati Unus given the title of Prince Sabrang Lor means Pengeran who cross the sea to the North.

    Then in 1518 Raden Patah died. He was succeeded by his son, Pati Unus. His government only lasted for 3 years because after that he died. Furthermore, the Demak Islamic kingdom is led by Sultan Renggono, Adim Pati Unus.

    Sultan Trenggono is known as a firm and wise king. Therefore, during his reign Demak reach the peak of glory. His domains include West Java and East Java.

    Under the reign of Sultan Trenggono, Demak remains antipathy against the invaders of Potugis. Moreover, the Portuguese continued to expand its colonies to West Java. In 1522 the Portuguese came to Sunda Kelapa, the main port of the Pajajaran kingdom. The Portuguese established cooperation with the king of Pajajaran by making a deal to confront the forces of Demak Islam. The Portuguese plan to build a fortress in Sunda Kelapa.

    In 1527 the Demak Islamic empire sent its army led by Fatahilah to drive and destroy the Potugis that occupied the Sunda of the coconut. Fatahillah and his army managed to drive out the Portuguese and control the Sunda Kelapa. Then by Fatahillah the name of Sunda Kelapa changed to Jayakarta means victory. Now Jayakarta becomes Jakarta.

    Meanwhile, Demak succeeded in mastering East Java. The expedition to East Java was led by Sultan Trenggono. But in his assault on Pasuruan in 1546, Sultan Trenggono died.

    After the death of Sultan Trenggono Timbullah conflict among families themselves. The struggle comes from who has the right to inherit the kingdom. stream ac milan The end of the Demak Islamic empire after Prince Adiwijoyo or Joko Tingkir succeeded in defeating Arya Penangsang like to act arbitrarily, so many dukes oppose his actions. Joko Tingkir then moved the palace of Demak to Pajang (in 1568. Thus finished the history of Demak Kingdom.

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